Quantcast
Follow us On YouTube Follow us On FaceBook



or
Search Language
Browse
Medical Animations
Medical Animation Titles
Custom Legal Animations
Anatomical Models
Patient Health Articles
Custom Interactive
Most Recent Uploads
Body Systems/Regions
Anatomy & Physiology
Diseases & Conditions
Cells & Tissues
Diagnostics & Surgery
Cardiovascular System
Digestive System
Integumentary System
Nervous System
Reproductive System
Respiratory System
Back and Spine
Foot and Ankle
Head and Neck
Hip
Knee
Shoulder
Thorax
Medical Specialties
Cancer
Cardiology
Dentistry
Editorial
Neurology/Neurosurgery
Ob/Gyn
Orthopedics
Pediatrics
Account
Administrator Login
The Doe Report Medical Reference Library
Print this article
Brain Anatomy

Brain Anatomy

Animation: Medical Animation: Anatomy of Brain

The brain is the most complex part of the human body. This three-pound organ is the seat of intelligence, interpreter of the senses, initiator of body movement, and controller of behavior. Lying in its bony shell and washed by protective fluid, the brain is the source of all the qualities that define our humanity. The brain is the crown jewel of the human body.

The Architecture of the Brain
The brain is like a committee of experts. All the parts of the brain work together, but each part has its own special properties. The brain can be divided into three basic units: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.Loading image. Please wait...

The hindbrain includes the upper part of the spinal cord, the brain stem, and a wrinkled ball of tissue called the cerebellum. The hindbrain controls the body's vital functions such as respiration and heart rate. The cerebellum coordinates movement and is involved in learned rote movements. When you play the piano or hit a tennis ball you are activating the cerebellum.

The uppermost part of the brainstem is the midbrain, which controls some reflex actions and is part of the circuit involved in the control of eye movements and other voluntary movements. The forebrain is the largest and most highly developed part of the human brain: it consists primarily of the cerebrum and the structures hidden beneath it (see "The Inner Brain").

When people see pictures of the brain it is usually the cerebrum that they notice. The cerebrum sits at the topmost part of the brain and is the source of intellectual activities. It holds your memories, allows you to plan, enables you to imagine and think. It allows you to recognize friends, read books, and play games.Loading image. Please wait...

The cerebrum is split into two halves (hemispheres) by a deep fissure. Despite the split, the two cerebral hemispheres communicate with each other through a thick tract of nerve fibers that lies at the base of this fissure. Although the two hemispheres seem to be mirror images of each other, they are different. For instance, the ability to form words seems to lie primarily in the left hemisphere, while the right hemisphere seems to control many abstract reasoning skills.

For some as-yet-unknown reason, nearly all of the signals from the brain to the body and vice-versa cross over on their way to and from the brain. This means that the right cerebral hemisphere primarily controls the left side of the body and the left hemisphere primarily controls the right side. When one side of the brain is damaged, the opposite side of the body is affected. For example, a stroke in the right hemisphere of the brain can leave the left arm and leg paralyzed.Loading image. Please wait...

The Geography of Thought
Each cerebral hemisphere can be divided into sections, or lobes, each of which specializes in different functions. To understand each lobe and its specialty we will take a tour of the cerebral hemispheres, starting with the two frontal lobes, which lie directly behind the forehead. When you plan a schedule, imagine the future, or use reasoned arguments, these two lobes do much of the work. One of the ways the frontal lobes seem to do these things is by acting as short-term storage sites, allowing one idea to be kept in mind while other ideas are considered. In the rearmost portion of each frontal lobe is a motor area, which helps control voluntary movement. A nearby place on the left frontal lobe called Broca's area allows thoughts to be transformed into words.

When you enjoy a good meal - the taste, aroma, and texture of the food - two sections behind the frontal lobes called the parietal lobes are at work. The forward parts of these lobes, just behind the motor areas, are the primary sensory areas. These areas receive information about temperature, taste, touch, and movement from the rest of the body. Reading and arithmetic are also functions in the repertoire of each parietal lobe.

As you look at the words and pictures on this page, two areas at the back of the brain are at work. These lobes, called the occipital lobes, process images from the eyes and link that information with images stored in memory. Damage to the occipital lobes can cause blindness.Loading image. Please wait...

The last lobes on our tour of the cerebral hemispheres are the temporal lobes, which lie in front of the visual areas and nest under the parietal and frontal lobes. Whether you appreciate symphonies or rock music, your brain responds through the activity of these lobes. At the top of each temporal lobe is an area responsible for receiving information from the ears. The underside of each temporal lobe plays a crucial role in forming and retrieving memories, including those associated with music. Other parts of this lobe seem to integrate memories and sensations of taste, sound, sight, and touch.

The Cerebral Cortex
Coating the surface of the cerebrum and the cerebellum is a vital layer of tissue the thickness of a stack of two or three dimes. It is called the cortex, from the Latin word for bark. Most of the actual information processing in the brain takes place in the cerebral cortex. When people talk about "gray matter" in the brain they are talking about this thin rind. The cortex is gray because nerves in this area lack the insulation that makes most other parts of the brain appear to be white. The folds in the brain add to its surface area and therefore increase the amount of gray matter and the quantity of information that can be processed.

The Inner Brain
Deep within the brain, hidden from view, lie structures that are the gatekeepers between the spinal cord and the cerebral hemispheres. These structures not only determine our emotional state, they also modify our perceptions and responses depending on that state, and allow us to initiate movements that you make without thinking about them. Like the lobes in the cerebral hemispheres, the structures described below come in pairs: each is duplicated in the opposite half of the brain.Loading image. Please wait...

The hypothalamus, about the size of a pearl, directs a multitude of important functions. It wakes you up in the morning, and gets the adrenaline flowing during a test or job interview. The hypothalamus is also an important emotional center, controlling the molecules that make you feel exhilarated, angry, or unhappy. Near the hypothalamus lies the thalamus, a major clearinghouse for information going to and from the spinal cord and the cerebrum.Loading image. Please wait...

An arching tract of nerve cells leads from the hypothalamus and the thalamus to the hippocampus. This tiny nub acts as a memory indexer - sending memories out to the appropriate part of the cerebral hemisphere for long-term storage and retrieving them when necessary. The basal ganglia (not shown) are clusters of nerve cells surrounding the thalamus. They are responsible for initiating and integrating movements. Parkinson's disease, which results in tremors, rigidity, and a stiff, shuffling walk, is a disease of nerve cells that lead into the basal ganglia.

Source:
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
National Institutes of Health
Reviewed July 3, 2003



Medical/Legal Disclaimer
Copyright © 2003 Nucleus Medical Art, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Related Medical Demonstrative Evidence - click thumbnail to review.
Brain with Arteries, 5-part
Brain with Arteries, 5-part -
Anatomical Model
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Neuro-Anatomical Brain  8-part
Neuro-Anatomical Brain 8-part -
Anatomical Model
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Classic Brain 4-part
Classic Brain 4-part -
Anatomical Model
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Giant Functional-Center Brain, 4 part
Giant Functional-Center Brain, 4 part -
Anatomical Model
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Anatomy of the Brain
Anatomy of the Brain -
Medical Exhibit
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Areas of the Brain Affected by Alzheimer\'s Disease
Areas of the Brain Affected by Alzheimer\'s Disease -
Medical Illustration
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Anatomy and Functional Areas of the Brain
Anatomy and Functional Areas of the Brain -
Medical Exhibit
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Brain, Anterior Cut-away View
Brain, Anterior Cut-away View -
Medical Illustration
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Left Lateral view of the Brain (color coded lobes)
Left Lateral view of the Brain (color coded lobes) -
Medical Illustration
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Brain -  Anatomy and Functional Areas
Brain - Anatomy and Functional Areas -
Medical Animation
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Left Lateral view of the Brain ( color coded lobes and labels)
Left Lateral view of the Brain ( color coded lobes and labels) -
Medical Illustration
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
Anatomy of the Brain
Anatomy of the Brain -
Medical Exhibit
Add to my lightbox
Find More Like This
How do I find a personal injury lawyer in my local area?
Find a personal injury lawyer in your local area using LEGALpointer™, a national directory of U.S. attorneys specializing in personal injury, medical malpractice, workers' compensation, medical product liability and other medical legal issues. Or, click on one of the following to see attorneys in your area: Alabama (AL), Alaska (AK), Arizona (AZ), Arkansas (AR), California (CA), Colorado (CO), Connecticut (CT), Delaware (DE), Washington D.C. (DC), Florida (FL), Georgia (GA), Hawaii (HI), Idaho (ID), Illinois (IL), Indiana (IN), Iowa (IA), Kansas (KS), Kentucky (KY), Louisiana (LA), Maine (ME), Maryland (MD), Massachussets (MA), Michigan (MI), (MN), Mississippi (MS), (MO), Montana (MT), North Carolina (NC), North Dakota (ND), Nebraska (NE), Nevada (NV), New Hampshire (NH), New Jersey (NJ), New Mexico (NM), New York (NY), Ohio (OH), Oklahoma (OK), Oregon (OR), Pennsylvania (PA), Puerto Rico (PR), Rhode Island (RI), South Carolina (SC), South Dakota (SD), Tennessee (TN), Texas (TX), Utah (UT), Virginia (VA), Virgin Islands (VI), Vermont (VT), Washington (WA), West Virginia (WV), Wisconsin (WI).












Awards | Resources | Articles | Become an Affiliate | Free Medical Images | Pregnancy Videos
Credits | Jobs | Help | Medical Legal Blog | Find a Lawyer | Hospital Marketing